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Rock in the metallic and non-metallic mines is usually hard, so it is difficult to recover them via excavating equipment. The common practice is first crushing them into smaller blocks that meet the requirements through blasting and then transporting ore and waste rocks to the storage site and waste dump respectively. Therefore, as for open pit mining, the process of trenching, stripping and mining is almost the same.
Blasting work includes drilling holes and detonating. Common drilling equipment is rotary drill (Φ150-380mm), shallow-hole drill (Φ100-250mm) and jackhammer (<Φ100mm). Common explosives are ammonium nitrate fuel oil explosives and water-proof slurry explosives and emulsified explosives.
2. Excavating and loading equipment
Excavating and loading work is an essential part of open pit mining. Blasting, transport and discharge are for the excavating and loading work. Common equipment is single-bucket excavator (1-16m3), front loader, bucket wheel shovel and sand dredger.
It includes automobile transport, railway transport, railway-automobile transport, or railway (automobile)-belt conveyor transport.
4. Rock dumping
Rock dumping is an important feature of open pit mining. Common methods are automobile, railway-excavator, waste disposal with plough, and belt dumping plough.